jueves, 15 de noviembre de 2012

English Nouns and Plurals ~ Los nombres y plurales ingleses

singular + -s
a car
two cars
a cassette
two cassettes
a lamp
two lamps
a hat
two hats
a cup
two cups
Add -es after sibilants:
a box
two boxes
a sandwich
two sandwiches
a suitcase
two suitcases
a rose
two roses
a garage
two garages

Substitute y after consonant with -ies:
a city
two cities
a lady
two ladies
Add -s after vowel + y:
a boy
two boys
a day
two days
There are two forms of the plural of the word penny:
pennies -> You refer to the coins.
pence -> You refer to the price (how much sth. is).

Nouns on -f or -fe:
add -s
substitute with -ves
a roof
two roofs
a thief
two thieves
a cliff
two cliffs
a wife
two wives
a sheriff
two sheriffs
a shelf
two shelves
There are two forms possible:
scarf - scarfs/scarves
hoof - hoofs/hooves
Add -s for words ending in -ff.
Always use a dictionary if you are not sure.

Nouns on -o form the plural by adding -s or -es.
add -s
substitute with -ves
a disco
two discos
a tomato
two tomatoes
a piano
two pianos
a potato
two potatoes
a photo
two photos
a hero
two heroes
Some nouns can have two plural forms:
buffalo - buffalos/buffaloes
mosquito - mosquitos/mosquitoes
tornado - tornados/tornadoes
There is no rule when to use -s or -es. We often add -s with technical words.

Irregular plural forms:
a man
two men
a woman
two women
a child
two children
a mouse
two mice
a tooth
two teeth
a goose
two geese
a foot
two feet
an ox
two oxen




What is the correct plural of the word?

  1. How many (person) study English as a second language?
  2. Five (woman) opened a computer service company.
  3. Even (child) enjoy learning on the Internet.
  4. Most basketball players are 6 (foot) tall or more.
  5. Which breed of (sheep) produces the finest wool?
  6. My (tooth) are sensitive to the cold.
  7. At daylight savings time, we have to change our (watch) .
  8. The boys went fishing and caught 10 (fish) .
  9. There are 10 (man) in the Maintenance Department.
  10. The (wife) keep their (knife) on the (shelf) .
  11. (Goose) are water birds.
  12. (Piano) are difficult to move .
  13. There are some (policeman) in my house!
  14. I've lost my (luggage) .

Write down the correct form of the plural:

  1. city - .
  2. house - .
  3. boy - .
  4. family - .
  5. life - .
  6. photo - .
  7. phone - .
  8. sandwich - .
  9. nurse - .
  10. elf - .
  11. phenomenon - .
  12. criterion - .
  13. village - .
  14. toy - .


Before submitting the test, check the following:
  • Punctuation and capitalization
  • Spelling
  • Spaces (don't add any unnecessary spaces)
Such mistakes would cost you valuable points. Good luck!

lunes, 1 de octubre de 2012


Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides. Prides are family units that may include up to three males, a dozen or so females, and their young. All of a pride's lionesses are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male

The cheetah is the world's fastest land mammal. With acceleration that would leave most automobiles in the dust, a cheetah can go from 0 to 60 miles (96 kilometers) an hour in only three seconds. These big cats are quite nimble at high speed and can make quick and sudden turns in pursuit of prey.

Easily recognized by its coat of reddish-orange with dark stripes, the tiger is the largest wild cat in the world. The big cat weighs up to 720 pounds (363 kilograms), stretches 6 feet (2 meters) long, and has a 3-foot- (1-meter-) long tail. The powerful predator generally hunts alone, able to bring down prey such as deer and antelope.

Their moans, groans, squeaks, whistles, and grunts can sound as if they're a heavy metal band. But bottlenose dolphins make their own kind of music. Many of the sounds they make could be imitated by holding a balloon tightly by the neck, then letting the air out faster and slower.

Brown bear
As winter approaches, brown bears—often called grizzly bears—prepare for a long hibernation. During the fall, a brown bear eats practically around the clock, stocking up for the four to seven months when it'll have to live off stored body fat. A grizzly may chow down on 90 pounds (40 kilograms) of food each day.

Coyotes in Los Angeles and Dallas? It's hard to imagine, but it's true. While populations of many other animals are shrinking, coyote populations are actually increasing. Coyotes once lived only in prairies and deserts of the western United States and in Mexico. Today they thrive almost anywhere in North America.

giants pandas
High in dense bamboo forests in the misty, rainy mountains of southwestern China lives one of the world's rarest mammals: the giant panda, also called the panda. Only about 1,000 of these black-and-white relatives of bears survive in the wild. Pandas eat almost nothing but bamboo shoots and leaves.
The howl of a gray wolf isn't only a mysterious sound in the wilderness. Howling sends other wolves a message. It might mean "I'm here, where are you?" or "Stay away from my territory." Wolves live in groups called packs. The wolves' communication skills are very important to the pack's survival. Wolves work together to hunt, raise their young, and protect their territory.


Jaguars are the largest of South America's big cats and the third largest cats in the world. At one time jaguars roamed all the way to the U.S.-Mexico border, but jaguars are now only occasionally sighted in Texas and Arizona. Most jaguars are found in the Amazon River basin.

Youngsters tumble, climb, and run playing follow the leader. Another group plays a rowdy game of king of the mountain. Several adults watch the action, relaxing nearby. Is this a playground scene at school? No, guess again. It's a lush mountain forest high in the Virunga mountains of Africa, and the playmates are young mountain gorillas under the watchful eyes of their mothers.

There is no mistaking what you're seeing when you spot a horselike animal with black-and-white stripes: it's a zebra. And each zebra has its own unique pattern of those distinctive stripes, just as humans have their own unique pattern of fingerprints.

Vampires bats
While much of the world sleeps, vampire bats emerge from dark caves, mines, tree hollows, and abandoned buildings in Mexico and Central and South America. They glide stealthily through the night air as they search for food. Like the legendary monster from which they get their name, these small mammals drink the blood of other animals for survival.

Tarantulas give people the creeps because they have large, hairy bodies and legs. Even the bad guy in the movie Home Alone lets out a blood-curdling scream when Macauley Culkin places his brother's pet tarantula on his face! While these large spiders can take a painful bite out of a human, a tarantula's venom is weaker than from a typical bee sting.


When you think elephant, you probably think trunk. An adult African elephant's trunk is about seven feet (two meters) long! It's actually an elongated nose and upper lip. Like most noses, trunks are for smelling. But they're also for touching and grasping.